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It is about the size prostata e bulbourethral a walnut in younger men, but it starts to get larger when men reach their late 40s and early 50s. It wraps around the upper part of the urethra called the prostatic urethra. Prostata e bulbourethral urethra is a tube that carries urine from the bladder, through the prostate and penis, and out of the body. The prostate is close to parts of the digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.
As a result, prostate cancer and its treatments can affect these systems. For example, an enlarged prostate can press on and block the urethra, which can cause problems urinating. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer can affect the rectum and cause bowel problems. Surgery to remove prostate cancer can affect nerves that supply the bladder and penis, which can affect urinary and sexual function.
The upper part of the prostate is called the base. It rests against the lower part neck of the bladder. The lower, narrowed part of the prostate is called the apex. The prostate is divided into a right and a left lobe.
The prostate is made up of many branching ducts surrounded by the stroma. The stroma is made up of connective tissue and muscle fibres. The cells that line the ducts make prostatic fluid, which is mixed with sperm and other fluid to make semen. Most of the prostate is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue called the capsule. The apex of the prostate is covered by the anterior fibromuscular stroma, which is made up of muscle fibres and connective tissue.
The seminal vesicles are glands prostata e bulbourethral on each side of the prostate. They make most of the fluid in semen. The seminal vesicles are sometimes removed during surgery to remove the prostate called a radical prostatectomy. The peripheral zone is the largest area of the prostate. It can easily be felt by the doctor during a digital rectal exam DRE.
Most prostate cancers start in the peripheral zone. The transition zone surrounds the part prostata e bulbourethral the urethra that passes through the prostate called the prostatic urethra. This zone gets bigger as men age, a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH. The central zone lies behind the transition zone and surrounds the ejaculatory ducts, which run from the seminal vesicles to the prostatic urethra.
Very few prostate cancers start prostata e bulbourethral the central zone. The anterior fibromuscular stroma is a thickened area of tissue that surrounds the apex of the prostate. It is made of muscle fibres and fibrous connective tissue.
Prostate cancer is rarely found in this part of the prostate. The main function of the prostate is to make prostatic fluid. Prostatic fluid is rich in enzymes, proteins and minerals that help protect and nourish sperm. When a man is sexually aroused, the prostate pushes prostatic prostata e bulbourethral through the ducts prostata e bulbourethral into the urethra.
Prostata e bulbourethral fluid mixes with sperm and other fluids in the urethra and is ejaculated as semen. Hormones, including testosterone and those made by the pituitary prostata e bulbourethral and adrenal glands, help control the function of the prostate gland. During DRE, the doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for unusual lumps or enlargement of the prostate. Call us toll-free at Or write us.
We will reply by email or phone if you leave us your details. If we are not able to reach you by phone, we will leave a voicemail message. Learn more. Presented in partnership with Desjardins. Select the text below and copy the link. Structure The upper part of the prostate is called the base.
The prostate is divided into the following areas. Function The main function of the prostate is to make prostatic fluid. First name:. Last name:. Email address:. Phone Number:. Postal code:. Stories Dr Michael Chaiton is learning how many tries it takes to prostata e bulbourethral smoking.
Links to help you Publications Talk to an information specialist Talk to someone who's been there Connect with our online community. How can you stop cancer before it starts? Need more prostata e bulbourethral
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It secretes proteolytic enzymes into the semen, which act to break down clotting factors in the ejaculate. This allows the semen to remain in a fluid state, moving throughout the female reproductive tract for potential fertilisation. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the prostate — its structure, vasculature and innervation, We shall also consider its clinical correlations. These open into the prostatic portion of the urethra, through openings at each side of the seminal colliculus or verumontanum ; secreting the enzymes into the semen immediately before ejaculation.
Fig 1 — Inferior view of the structures prostata e bulbourethral the male reproductive system. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is prostata e bulbourethral increase in size of the prostate, without the presence of malignancy. The enlarged prostate may compress the urethra, resulting in symptoms that refer to impaired storage of urine urinary frequency, urinary urgency, nocturia and symptoms that refer to impaired voiding difficulty in initiating micturition, poor stream, intermittent urine stream and terminal dribbling of urine.
The prostate is commonly described as being the size of a walnut. Roughly two-thirds of the prostate is glandular in structure and the remaining third is fibromuscular.
The gland itself is surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule of the prostate. This prostata e bulbourethral not a real capsule; it rather resembles the thin connective tissue known as adventitia in the large blood vessels.
However, more important clinically is the histological division of the prostate into three zones according to McNeal :. The fibromuscular stroma or fourth zone for some is situated anteriorly in the gland.
It merges with the tissue of the urogenital diaphragm. This part of the gland is actually the result of interaction of the prostate gland budding around the urethra during prostate embryogenesis and the common horseshoe-like muscle precursor of the smooth and striated muscle that will eventually form the internal and external urethra sphincter.
Fig 3 — The prostate can be felt anteriorly during a digital rectal examination. The peripheral zone is mainly palpated.
The arterial supply to the prostate comes from the prostatic arterieswhich are mainly derived from the internal iliac arteries.
Some branches may also arise from the internal prostata e bulbourethral and middle rectal arteries. Venous drainage of the prostate is via the prostatic venous plexusdraining into the internal iliac veins.
However, the prostatic prostata e bulbourethral plexus also connects posteriorly by networks of veins, including the Batson venous plexus, to the internal vertebral venous plexus. The prostate receives sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory innervation from the inferior hypogastric plexus. The prostate is flanked by the prostata e bulbourethral neurovascular bundles that travel through the pelvic floor towards the penis, supplying it with nerve fibres and blood vessels for the corpora cavernosa.
The integrity prostata e bulbourethral these bundles is critical for normal erection. Special nerve-sparing techniques may prevent extensive damage to these bundles, thus allowing for post-operative potency. Prostatic carcinoma represents the most commonly diagnosed prostata e bulbourethral in men, especially in prostata e bulbourethral with high sociodemographic index. The malignant cells commonly originate from the peripheral zone, although carcinomas may arise more rarely from the central and transition zones too.
It is still debatable that the latter tumors may present with lower malignant potential. However the proximity of the peripheral zone to the neurovascular bundle that surrounds the prostata e bulbourethral may facilitate spread along perineural and lymphatic pathways, thus increasing the metastatic potential of these tumors. Prostate carcinoma also commonly spreads via the Batson venous plexus to the vertebral bodies and cause skeletal metastases. A DRE may reveal a hard, irregular prostate gland.
In most cases the serum PSA values will be increased. However, due to the peripherally-advancing tumor, symptoms prostata e bulbourethral be minimal, as obstruction occurs usually at prostata e bulbourethral stages. One should also keep in mind that the high incidence of prostate carcinoma is found in elderly men, who may already have symptoms due to BPH.
The Prostate Specific Antigen PSA is an enzyme serine protease secreted by the prostatic epithelium that aids the liquification prostata e bulbourethral the ejaculate by lysing seminal vesicle proteins. However the main clinical use of PSA is as a tumor marker specific for prostate carcinoma. Increased levels of serum PSA may prostata e bulbourethral the presence of prostate cancer. Fig 4 — Prostate cancer has the potential to invade nearby structures. Once you've finished editing, click 'Submit for Review', and your changes will be reviewed by our team before publishing on the site.
Cookies help us deliver the best experience to all our users. The find out more about our cookies, click here. By TeachMeSeries Ltd BPH is usually caused by hyperplasia of the glands from the transitional zone of the prostate. Anatomical Structure The prostate is commonly described as being the size of a walnut. The ducts of the glands from the central zone are obliquely prostata e bulbourethral in the prostatic urethra, thus being rather immune to urine reflux.
The ducts of the glands from the peripheral zone are vertically emptying in the prostatic urethra; that may explain the tendency of these glands to permit urine reflux. That also prostata e bulbourethral the high incidence of acute and chronic inflammation found in these compartments, a fact that may be linked to the high incidence of prostate carcinoma at the peripheral zone. The peripheral zone is mainly the area felt against the rectum on DRE, which is of irreplaceable value.
Vasculature The arterial supply to the prostate comes from the prostatic arterieswhich are prostata e bulbourethral derived from the internal iliac arteries.
Innervation The prostate receives sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory innervation from the inferior hypogastric plexus. Neurovascular Bundles The prostate is flanked by the two neurovascular bundles that travel through the pelvic floor towards the penis, supplying it with nerve fibres and blood vessels for the corpora cavernosa. Clinical Relevance — Prostatic Carcinoma Prostatic carcinoma represents the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, especially in countries with high sociodemographic index.
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You are here: Urology Textbook. Any gland, which empties into the genital tract, is assigned to the accessory sex glands. The male accessory sex glands are the prostate, the paired seminal vesicles, and the paired bulbourethral Cowper glands. Dorsal of the seminal vesicles is the rectum, lateral the ureter. The duct of the seminal vesicle opens into the ampulla of the ductus deferens Ampulla and forms the ejaculatory duct. See also anatomy of the epididymis and ductus deferens.
The transition zone hatched area surrounds the urethra between colliculus and bladder neck. The central zone without shading forms a funnel sagittal plane or ring-like zone horizontal plane. Prostata e bulbourethral central zone is located between transition zone and peripheral zone. The ejaculatory ducts run through the central zone. The peripheral zone includes the peripheral sections of the prostate gland prostata e bulbourethral area. The prostate gland is a pyramid-shaped organ with apex contact to the urethra and directed prostata e bulbourethral and basis contact to the bladder and prostata e bulbourethral upward.
Prostata e bulbourethral prostate lies below the urinary bladder and is located in front of the rectum. The prostate weighs about 20 g 3 cm long, 4 cm wide, 2 cm thick. There are considerable prostate size variations. The seminal vesicles are located prostata e bulbourethral the base of the prostate. The prostatic urethra runs through the prostate gland, dividing the prostate into a left and right lateral lobe. The paired ejaculatory duct perforates the prostate and opens into the middle of the prostatic urethra at the seminal colliculus verumontanum.
The prostata e bulbourethral utricle is a small indention at the seminal colliculus, it is a remain of the Müllerian duct. Usually the prostatic utricle is only 6 mm in size, but may be the reason for diverticula or cysts.
The prostate consists of about 30 glands with single ducts, which empty into the prostatic urethra. The prostate is surrounded by a dense organ capsule. The prostatic capsule is not present at the apex transition to the external sphincter and at the basis transition to the detrusor muscle of the bladder. Two puboprostatic ligaments fix the prostate to the pubic bone. The endopelvic fascia covers ventrally the prostate visceral sheet. The endopelvic fascia Fascia diaphragmatis pelvis superior extends to both sides and covers the levator ani muscle parietal sheet.
The fold between visceral and parietal endopelvic fascia is called Arcus tendineus fascia pelvis. The cavernous nerves run in the parietal layer of the endopelvic fascia latero-dorsal to the prostate. The Denovilliers' fascia separates dorsal the prostate from the rectum. The rectourethral muscle is a smooth muscle that lies posterior to the apex of the prostate. It rises from the rectum and inserts on the perineal body fat, thereby separating prostata e bulbourethral urethra from the rectum Brooks et al, Due to embryological and pathological aspects the prostate can be divided into different zones [fig.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a reason for a dramatic increase of the transition zone volume and leads prostata e bulbourethral lower urinary tract symptoms LUTS. The central zone originates probably from the Wolffian duct. The central zone forms a funnel sagittal section or ring-like horizontal zone, which contains the ejaculatory ducts. The urethral branches perforate the basal prostate and bladder neck at 4 and 8 clock view from lithotomy position and supply the transition zone.
Bleeding due prostata e bulbourethral TURP or Adenomectomy are therefore expected at the bladder neck at the 4 and 8 clock position. Capsular branches join the cavernous nerves posterolateral of the prostate and run to the pelvic floor. Small arteries branch off at right angle and perforate through the organ capsule. Additional arterial supply: branches prostata e bulbourethral the middle prostata e bulbourethral artery, internal pudendal artery or obturator artery.
The vesicoprostatic plexus is particularly strong under the puboprostatic ligaments and pubic bone Santonini's plexuswhere the blood from the deep penile vein joins the plexus. The cavernous nerves run between the capsule of the prostate and the fascia prostata e bulbourethral the levator ani muscle latero-posterior to the prostate.
The paired Cowper's glands lie laterally to the membranous portion of the urethra and open via a 2—5 cm long duct into the spongy urethra. The seminal vesicle consists of a duct-like glandular tissue, about 15 cm long, with strong muscle-containing wall.
The seminal vesicle ducts are lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The tubuloalveolar glands have pseudostratified columnar epithelium of varying height. The columnar cells contain apical secretory granules. Basal cells are found between the columnar cells for regeneration of the epithelium. Each gland is surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle fibromuscular stroma.
The prostate glands open on both sides of the Colliculus in the prostatic urethra. During ejaculation, the smooth muscle contracts and leads to the expulsion of the glandular content. The prostatic fluid is thin, slightly acidic pH 6.
It contains spermine for the motility of spermsspermidine, prostataglandins for uterus stimulationzinc affects testosterone metabolism of the prostatecitric acid bufferimmunoglobulins, phosphatases and proteases see liquefaction of the semen. The prostate prostata e bulbourethral as a kind of valve, preventing urine flow during the ejaculation and or permitting urine flow in between.
Micturition is made possible under parasympathetic activity and low sympathetic activity, this leads prostata e bulbourethral the relaxation of the bladder neck. Ejaculation is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of prostatic alpha-receptors leads to the contraction of the smooth muscle stroma of the bladder prostata e bulbourethral this causes the expulsion of the prostate gland content and closes the bladder neck for an antegrade ejaculation.
Injury of the sympathetic nerves e. The seminal vesicles produce an alkaline pH 7. Deutsche Prostata e bulbourethral Prostataanatomie.
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In this article, we will explain what the prostate does, its basic prostata e bulbourethral, and what medical conditions can affect the prostate. The prostate only appears in males. It secretes a fluid that keeps sperm alive while protecting them and the genetic code prostata e bulbourethral carry.
During ejaculation, sperm travels along two tubes called vas deferens ; they carry millions of sperm from the testes where they are made to the seminal vesicles. The seminal vesicles are attached to the prostate and add extra fluid to the semen before it is sent down the urethra. The site where the vas deferens meets the prostata e bulbourethral vesicles is known as the ejaculatory duct. The prostate contracts during ejaculation, closing off the opening between the bladder and urethra and pushing semen through at speed.
This is why it is impossible to urinate and ejaculate at the same time. The milky fluid produced by the prostate — prostatic fluid — makes up around 30 percent of the total fluid ejaculated the prostata e bulbourethral is sperm and fluid from the seminal vesicles.
Prostatic fluid protects sperm, helping them live longer and be more mobile. It contains a number of ingredients, including enzymes, zinc, and citric acid.
One of the enzymes in prostata e bulbourethral fluid is prostate-specific antigen PSA ; after ejaculation, PSA makes thickened semen runnier, helping sperm travel through it more easily, increasing their likelihood of successfully fertilizing an egg.
Although prostatic fluid is slightly acidic, the other prostata e bulbourethral of semen make it alkaline overall; this is to counteract the acidity of the vagina and protect the sperm from damage.
To function properly, the prostate needs androgens male hormonessuch as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT. The prostate is surrounded by connective tissue containing many muscle fibers; this capsule makes the prostate feel elastic to the touch. Scientists often split the prostate into four zones that encircle the urethra like layers of an onion. Here prostata e bulbourethral are listed from outermost to innermost.
Anterior prostata e bulbourethral zone stroma — made of muscular and fibrous tissue. Part of the capsule. Peripheral zone — mostly situated toward the back of the gland, this is where most of the glandular tissue is.
Central zone — surrounds the prostata e bulbourethral ducts and makes up around one-quarter of the prostate's total mass. Transition zone — this is the smallest part of the prostate and surrounds the urethra; prostata e bulbourethral is the only portion of the prostate that continues to grow throughout life.
Prostate cancer — this is the most common form of cancer in males, affecting around prostata e bulbourethral in 7 men during their lifetime. Around 1 in 39 men die of prostata e bulbourethral cancer. Enlarged prostate — also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy BPHthis affects almost all men aged 50 or over. It makes prostata e bulbourethral difficult to urinate and, in rare, serious cases, can prevent urination entirely.
Most commonly, the enlargement occurs in the transition zone. Prostatitis — an inflammation of the prostate; this is sometimes caused by an infection. Digital rectal examination — the doctor inserts a finger into the rectum and feels the prostate. This can detect lumps, nodules, and cancer. Prostate-specific antigen PSA — blood tests can assess the levels of this protein. High levels indicate an increased risk of prostate cancer. Prostate biopsy — a needle inserted into the prostate via the rectum can take a sample of tissue to be tested in the lab.
Prostate ultrasound — also called a transrectal ultrasounda probe is inserted into the rectum, positioning it close to the prostate. Sometimes a biopsy is taken at the same time. The prostate, a small muscular gland, produces an important fluid that transports sperm and keeps them safe.
Although not vital for life, the prostate is vital for reproduction. Article last updated by Tim Newman on Thu 11 January All references are available in the References tab. Bhavsar, A. Anatomic imaging of the prostate.
BioMed Research International, How does the prostate work? Key statistics for prostate cancer. Know your prostate. Prostate cancer. MLA Newman, Tim. MediLexicon, Intl. APA Newman, T. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information prostata e bulbourethral on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. Privacy Terms Ad policy Careers.
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Send securely. Message sent successfully The details of this article have been emailed on your behalf. By Tim Newman. Reviewed by Daniel Murrell, MD. Table of contents What does the prostate do? Structure Conditions affecting the prostate Medical tests.
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